Also see Lynn M. The genital area was then cleaned with a sponge, frankincense powder and wine or cold water, and wrapped in linen bandages dipped in vinegar, until the seventh day when calaminerose petals, date pits or a "genital powder made from baked clay" might be applied. Every golfer knows the official golfer's uniform must include a quarter-zip, and so we made sure the Unpro quarter-zip is available in a variety of simple, solid colors that can International Journal of Epidemiology. According to the anthropologist Christine Walley, a common position within anti-FGM literature has been to present African women as victims of false consciousness participating in their own oppression, a position promoted by feminists in the s and s, including Fran Hosken, Mary Daly and Hanny Lightfoot-Klein. Almost every golfer wishes they had Protracer following their good swings, on their golf course. In most countries, medical personnel, including doctors, nurses and certified midwives, are not widely involved in the practice.
A woman's responsibilities toward the tribe began with her initiation.
All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in African American Public Culture, 1830-1900
Female genital mutilation FGMalso known as female genital cutting and female circumcision[a] is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. A ReaderPambazuka Press,p. This page was last edited on 28 Mayat The WHO does not define procedures such as labiaplasty and clitoral hood reduction as FGM, but its definition aims to avoid loopholes, so several elective practices do fall within it. The cutter is usually an older woman, but in communities where the male barber has assumed the role of health worker he will perform FGM too. Thomas, "'Ngaitana I will circumcise myself ': Women's rightsAfrican Americanpublic culturesocial movementswoman questionslaverycivil rightsblack women activists.